Chiropractic and Osteopathic Information

What sort of things can a chiropractor treat?

The type of treatment is varied according to the age and health of the individual.

Our treatment area's include:

Back Pain and Sciatica              (1 to14)
Headaches and Migraines         (1 to 8)
Shoulder pain, Rotator cuff and impingements     (1 to 8)
Neck pain and injuries, Whiplash and Accidents  (1 to 8)
Wrist injuries, Tendinopathy and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome   (1 to 15)
Arthritis and spondyolosis       (1 to 5)
Posture        (1 to 12)
Knee pain    (1 to 10)
Foot and Ankle Problems        (1 to 17)
Scoliosis      (1 to 10)
Back Pain and Spinal Care during Pregnancy                       (1 to 5)
Sports Injury Management and Performance Enhancement (1 to 7)


References and sources

Back Pain and Sciatic

1. Walker BF, Muller R, Grant WD.  Low back pain in Australian adults: prevalence and associated disability. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2004 May;27(4):238-44. 
2. Sidney M Rubinstein, Marienke van Middelkoop, Willem JJ Assendelft, et al. Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low-back pain. Editorial Group: Cochrane Back Group . Published Online: 16 FEB 2011  -  Assessed as up-to-date: 5 DEC 2009. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008112.pub2
3. Simon D French, Melainie Cameron, Bruce F Walker, et al. Superficial heat or cold for low back pain. Editorial Group: Cochrane Back Group . Published Online: 14 APR 2010  -  Assessed as up-to-date: 11 OCT 2005. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004750.pub2
4.Willem JJ Assendelf, Sally C Morton, Emily I Yu, et al. Spinal manipulative therapy for low-back pain. Editorial Group: Cochrane Back Group. Published Online: 8 OCT 2008  -  Assessed as up-to-date: 30 JAN 2000. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000447.pub2
5. Pepijn DDM Roelofs, ick A Deyo, Bart W Koes, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Editorial Group: Cochrane Back Group . Published Online: 17 MAR 2010  -  Assessed as up-to-date: 16 OCT 2007DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000396.pub3
6. Arno J Engers,Petra Jellema, Michel Wensing, Daniëlle AWM van der Windt,et al. Individual patient education for low back pain. Editorial Group: Cochrane Back Group .Published Online: 17 FEB 2010  -  Assessed as up-to date: 24 SEP 2007. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004057.pub3
7. Jill Hayden, Maurits W van Tulder, Antti Malmivaara, Bart W Koes. Exercise therapy for treatment of non-specific low back pain. Editorial Group: Cochrane Back Group . Published Online: 17 FEB 2010  -  Assessed as up-to-date: 30 SEP 2004DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000335.pub2 
8. Nicholas Henschke, Raymond WJG Ostelo, Maurits W van Tulder, et al.  Behavioural treatment for chronic low-back pain. Editorial Group: Cochrane Back Group. Published Online: 7 JUL 2010  -  Assessed as up-to-date: 31 JUL 2009. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002014.pub3
9. Nadège Lemeunier, Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde, Olivier Gagey. The natural course of low back pain: a systematic critical literature review Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2012, 20:33 doi:10.1186/2045-709X-20-33

10.Oliveira VC, Ferreira PH, Maher CG, Pinto RZ, Refshauge KM, Ferreira ML. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken).  Effectiveness of self-management of low back pain: Systematic review with meta analysis.  2012 Nov;64(11):1739-48. doi: 10.1002/acr.21737.
11. Bruce F Walker, Simon D French, William Grant, Sally Green. Combined chiropractic interventions for low-back pain Editorial Group: Cochrane Back Group.Published Online: 14 APR 2010. Assessed as up-to-date: 27 NOV 2009. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005427.pub2
12.Pierre Côté, Kristi Randhawa, et al. Ergonomic design and training for preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb and neck in adults. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews. Aug 2012 
13. McGill S (2016). Low Back Disorder. Evidence-Based Prevention and Rehabilitation 3rd Ed. Human Kinetic Publishers. ISBN: 1450472915
14. 5.. Magee DJ (2008). Orthopedic Physical Assesment Ed 5. pg 972-1012. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN-13:978-0-7216-0571-


Headaches

(1) Fernández-de-las-Peñas et al. Myofascial trigger points and sensitization: an updated pain model for tension-type headache. Cephalalgia, 2007, 27, 383–393
(2) Russell MB,Kristiansen HA,Saltyte-Benth J, et al. A cross-sectional population-based survey of migraine and headache in 21,177 Norwegians: the Akershus sleep apnea project. J Headache Pain 2008;9:33947. doi:10.1007/s10194-008-0077-z [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar
(6)  Hall T, Briffa K, Hopper D. Clinical evaluation of cervicogenic headache: a clinical  perspective. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy. 2008:16 (2) 73-80
(7) https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au
(8) www.headacheaustralia.org.au  Headache Australia is a division of the brain foundation established in 1970 by members of the Australian Association of Neurologists and the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia


Additional References:
  • The Clinical Training and Communication Program, Module 3 Headache & The autonomic Nervous System. A. Nicolson and M. Long (Version 2.1,2010) Chiropractic Development International, Wahroonga NSW.
  • Nilsson N, Christensen HW, Hartvigsen J. The effect of spinal manipulation in the treatment of cervicogenic headache. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997; 20(5):326-30.
  • Boline PD; Kassak K; Bronfort G; Nelson C; Anderson AV. Spinal manipulation vs. amitriptyline for the treatment of chronic tension-type headaches: a randomized clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995; 18(3):148-54.
  • Nelson CF; Bronfort G; Evans R; Boline P; Goldsmith C; Anderson AV. The efficacy of spinal manipulation, amitriptyline and the combination of both therapies for the prophylaxis of migraine headache. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998; 21(8):511-9
Shoulder
(1) Magee DJ (2008). Orthopedic Physical Assesment Ed 5. pg 972-1012. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN-13:978-0-7216-0571-5
(2) Page P, Frank C, Lardner R, (2010) Assessment and treatment of Muscle Imbalance. The Janda Approach. Human Kinetics. ISBN10:0-7360-7400-7
(3) Christensen BH, Andersen KS, Rasmussen S et al (2016) Enhanced function and quality of life following 5 months of exercise therapy for patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears - an intervention study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016 Jun 8;17:252. doi: 10.1186/s12891-016-1116-6.
(4). Seitz, AL, McClure PW, Finucane S et al. Mechanisms of rotator cuff tendinopathy: Intrinsic, extrinsic, or both? Clinical Biomechanics. January 2011Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 1–12 (5) Murphy F, Hall M, D’Amico L, Jensen A (2012). Chiropractic management of frozen shoulder syndrome using a novel technique. A retrospective case series of 50 patients. J Chiropr Med. 2012 Dec; 11(4): 267–272.
(6) Lee SY, Lee KJ, Kim W, Chung SG (2015) Relationships Between Capsular Stiffness and Clinical Features in Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder. 2015 Dec;7(12):1226-34. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.05.012. Epub 2015 May 21.
(7) Noten S, Meeus M, Stassijns G, et al. Efficacy of different types of mobilsation techniques in patients with primary adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: A systematic Review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016 May;97(5):815-25. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2015.07.025. Epub 2015 Aug 15.

(8) Hanratty CE, McVeigh JG, Kerr DP etal The effectiveness of physiotherapy exercises in subacromial impingement syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet]. Review published: 2012.

Neck pain
1. Hoy DG, Protani M, De R, et al: The epidemiology of neck pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2010 Dec;24(6):783-92

2. Gorrell LM, Beath K, Engel RM, Manual and Instrument applied cervical manipulation for Mechanical Neck Pain. A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2016 Jun;39(5):319-29.
3. Saavedra_Hernandez M, Arroyo-Morales M, et al, Short-term effects of spinal thrust joint manipulation in patients with chronic neck pain: a randomized clinical trail. Clin Rehabil. 2013 Jun;27(6):504-12.
4. Theresa M Kay1,2,*, Anita Gross3, Charles H Goldsmith4, et al.  Exercises for mechanical neck disorders. Editorial Group: Cochrane Back Group . Published Online: 28 JAN 2015  -  Assessed as up-to-date: 29 MAY 2012 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004250.pub4

5. Anita Gross, Jordan Miller, Jonathan D'Sylva, Stephen J Burnie,et al: Manipulation or Mobilisation for Neck Pain. Editorial Group: Cochrane Back Group Published Online: 23 SEPT 2015  -  Assessed as up-to-date: 7 JUL 2009 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004249.pub3
6. Spitzer, W.O., Scientific monograph of the Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders: Redefining ‘whiplash’ and its management. Spine, 1995. 20: p. 1-73.
7. State Insurance Regulatory Authority. https://www.maa.nsw.gov.au/for-professionals/for-health-professionals/acute-whiplash/whiplash-assessment-tools?result_3871_result_page=1.

8.  Wong JJ1, Shearer HM2, Mior S3, Jacobs C4, et al. Are manual therapies, passive physical modalities, or acupuncture effective for the management of patients with whiplash-associated disorders or neck pain and associated disorders? an update of the bone and joint decade task force on neck pain and its associated disorders by the optima collaboration. Spine J. 2015 Dec 17. pii: S1529-9430(15)01234-6. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2015.08.024

Wrist injuries
1. Page MJ,  O'Connor D, Pitt V and Massy-Westropp N. Excercise and mobilisation interventions for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. June 2012

2. Pierre Côté, Kristi Randhawa, et al. Ergonomic design and training for preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb and neck in adults. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews. Aug 2012

3. Muller M, Tsui D, Schnurr R, BiddulphDeisroth L, Hard J, MacDermid J C. Effectiveness of hand therapy interventions in primary management of carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review. Journal of Hand Therapy.2004;17(2):210228.

4. .Sutton D, Gross DP, et al. Multimodal care for the management of musculoskeletal disorders of the elbow, forearm, wrist and hand: a systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2016 24:8

5. Kobesova A, Dzvonik J, Kolar P, Sardina A, Andel R. Effects of shoulder girdle dynamic stabilization exercise on hand muscle strength. , Isokinetics and exercise Science. , 2015;23:21-32, 0959-3020
6. Magee DJ (2008). Orthopedic Physical Assesment Ed 5. pg 972-1012. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN-13:978-0-7216-0571-5
7. Fedorczyk JM. Tendinopathies of the elbow, wrist, and hand: histopathology and clinical considerations. J Hand Ther. 2012 Apr-Jun;25(2):191-200; quiz 201. doi: 10.1016/j.jht.2011.12.001
8. Victor CW Hoe , Donna M Urquhart , Helen L Kelsall and Malcolm R Sim (2012). Ergonomic design and training for preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb and neck in adults. Online Publication Date: August 2012. Cochrane Database
9. CushJJ, Kavanaugh A, Stein CM (2015). RheumaKnowlegy. ICD9 code:270.0. www.rheumaknowledgy.com
10. Brukner P, Karim K (2012). Clinical Sports Medicine 4th Ed. McGrath-Hill Education. ISBN:9780070998131.
11. Paungmali A, O'Leary S, Souvlis T et al (2003). Hypoalgesic ans sympathoexcitatory effects of mobilization with movement for lateral epicondylalgia. Phs Ther;83(4):374-83
12. Vicenzino B,
Paungmali A, Buratwoski S et al (2001). Specific manipulative therapy for chronic lateral epicondylalgia produces uniquely characterstiv hypoalgesia. Man Ther;6 (4):205-12
13. VicenzinoB, Collins D, Wright A. The initial effects of cervical spine manipulative physiotherapy treatment on pain and dysfunction of lateral epicondylalgia. Pain;68:69-74
14. Pienimaki T, Tarvainen T, Sira P et al. (1996). Progressive strengthening and stretch excercises and ultrasound for chronic lateral epicondylalitis. Physiotherapy;82:522
15. Svernlov B, Adolfsson L (2001). Non-operative treatment regime including eccentric training for lateral humeral. Scand J Med Sci Sports;11:328-34



Arthrtis
1.
http://www.arthritisaustralia.com.au
2. CushJJ, Kavanaugh A, Stein CM (2015). RheumaKnowlegy. ICD9 code:270.0. www.rheumaknowledgy.com
3. Bates,S, Smedley, C., Wong, M., Kayess, R. & Fisher,K.R. (2014). Arthritis and disability (SPRC Report 26/2014). Sydney: Social Policy Research Centre, UNSW Australia.
4. Painful realities: The economic impact of arthritis in Australia 2007 (REPORT BY ACCESS ECONOMICS PTY LIMITED FOR ARTHRITIS AUSTRALIA 31 JULY 2007)
5.Larmer PJ, Reay ND, et al Systematic review of guidelines for the physical management of osteoarthritis Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Feb;95(2):375-89.

Posture
1. Adams MA, Hutton WC. Gradual disc prolapse. Spine 1985;10:524-531.

2. http://www.healthdirect.gov.au/workplace-health

3. Australian Government Comcare. Officewise: a guide to health and safety in the office (updated July 2008). http://www.comcare.gov.au/forms and publications/publications/safety and prevention/officewisea guide to health and safety in the office ohs 1 (accessed May 2012).

4. WorkCover NSW. Health and safety in the office, 2004. http://www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/formspublications/publications/Documents/health and_safety_in_the_office_guide_1319.pdf (accessed May 201

5.. Magee DJ (2008). Orthopedic Physical Assesment Ed 5. pg 972-1012. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN-13:978-0-7216-0571-5

6. Victor CW Hoe , Donna M Urquhart , Helen L Kelsall and Malcolm R Sim (2012). Ergonomic design and training for preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb and neck in adults. Online Publication Date: August 2012. Cochrane Database

7. Wennberg P, Boraxbekk CJ, Wheeler M, Howard B, et al (2016). Acute effects of breaking up prolonged sitting on fatigue and cognition: a pilot study. BMJ Open. 2016 Feb

8. Sherrod C, Johnson D, Chester B (2014). Safety, tolerability and effectiveness of an ergonomic intervention with chiropractic care for knowledge workers with upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders: a prospective case series. Work. 2014;49(4):641-51. doi: 10.3233/WOR-131732.

9.. Kolar P, Kobesova A, Valouchova P, Bitnar P. Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization: developmental kinesiology: breathing stereotypes and postural-locomotion function, Recognizing and Treating Breathing Disorders, 2014;11-22, 978-0-7020-4980-4.

10. Kobesova A, Safarova M, Kolar P. Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization: Exercise in the developmental positions to achieve spinal stability and functional joint centration, Oxford Textbook of Musculoskeletal Medicine, 2015:678-689, 978-0-10-967410-7.
11. Lewit K, Kobesova A. A soft Tissue Manipulation, Rehabilitation of the Spine. A Practitioners Manual. 2nd ed, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2006:388-402, 0-7817-2997-1
12.KobesovaA, Kolar P, Developmental Kinesiology; Three levels of motor control in the assessment and treatment of the motor system, Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies (2013).

Knee
1. CushJJ, Kavanaugh A, Stein CM (2015). RheumaKnowlegy. ICD9 code:270.0. www.rheumaknowledgy.com
2. Magee DJ (2008). Orthopedic Physical Assesment Ed 5. pg 972-1012. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN-13:978-0-7216-0571-5 (2) Page P, Frank C, Lardner R, (2010) Assessment and treatment of Muscle Imbalance. The Janda Approach. Human Kinetics. ISBN10:0-7360-7400-7
3. Page P, Frank C, Lardner R, (2010) Assessment and treatment of Muscle Imbalance. The Janda Approach. Human Kinetics. ISBN10:0-7360-7400-7
4. Lack S, et alProximal muscle rehabilitation is effective for patellofemoral pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2015;49:1365-1376
5. Barton CJ, et al The ‘Best Practice Guide to Conservative Management of Patellofemoral Pain’: incorporating level 1 evidence with expert clinical reasoning Br J Sports Med  2015;49:923-934 
6. Buttgereit F, Burmester GR, et al. Non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis:where are we now and where do we need to go? RMD Open 2015
7. Dwyer, L, Parkin-Smith GF, Brantingham JW et al , Manual and manipulative therapy in addition to rehabilitation for osteoarthritis of the knee: assessor-blind randomized pilot trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2015 Jan;38(1):1-21.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2014.10.002. Epub 2014 Nov 20.
8. Singh J, Noorbaloochi S, MacDonald R et al (2015). Chondroitin for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews. 10.1002/14651858.CD005614.pub2
9. Towheed T, Maxwell L, Anastassiades Tp et al, Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis 2005.
Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002946.pub2

Foot and Ankle
1. The Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4364.0.55.004Chapter5002011-12
2. Magee DJ (2008). Orthopedic Physical Assesment Ed 5. pg 972-1012. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN-13:978-0-7216-0571-5 (2)
3. Page P, Frank C, Lardner R, (2010) Assessment and treatment of Muscle Imbalance. The Janda Approach. Human Kinetics. ISBN10:0-7360-7400-7

4. Brukner P, Karim K (2012). Clinical Sports Medicine 4th Ed. McGrath-Hill Education. ISBN:9780070998131.
5. Wright CJ, Linens SW, Cain MS (2016). Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Rehabilitation Efficacy in Chronic Ankle Instability. J Sport Rehabil. 2016 Feb 26. 

6.  Ashford RL, Kippen C,  Rome K (2005). Intervention for Pes Planus. Cochrane Musculoskeletal group. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005120.
7. Prichasuk, S Subhadrabanhdhu, T (1994) The relationship of Pes Planus and calcaneal spur to plantar heel pain. Clin Orthop Relat Res. Sep: (306):192-6.
8. Roos EM, Engstrom M, Lagerquist A et al (2004). Clinical improvement after 6 weeks of eccentric excercise in patients with mid_portion Achilles Tendinopathy-a randomised trial with 1 year follow up. Scand J Med Sci Sports 14 (5):286-95

9. Coughlin MJ, Jones CP "Hallux valgus: demographics, etiology, and radiographic assessment" Foot Ankle Int. 2007 Jul;28(7):759-77.

10. Roddy E, Zhang W, Doherty M "Prevalence and associations of hallux valgus in a primary care population" Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Jun 15;59(6):857-62.

11. Kim MH, Kwon OY, Kim SH, Jung DY (2013). Comparison of muscle activities of abductor hallucis and adductor hallucis between the short foot and toe-spread-out exercises in subjects with mild hallux valgus. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2013;26(2):163-8. doi: 10.3233/BMR-2012-00363.
12. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 2010, 11, 64
13. Pellow JE and Brantingham JW , The efficacy of adjusting the ankle in the treatment of subacute and chronic grade I and grade II ankle inversion sprains.  Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics, 2001, 24(1), 17
14.DiGiovanni Be, Nawcoczenski DA et al (2003). Tissue specific plantar fascia-stretching excercises enhances outcomes in patients with chronic heel pain. A prospective randomised study. J Bone Joint Surg Br : 85 B (7):1270-7
15. Mankey MG. A classification of severity with an analysis of causative problems related to the type of treatment. Foot and Ankle Clinics 2003;8(3):461-71.
16. Achilles tendonitis, Medline Plus, US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health US. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001072.htm

17. Irwin TA. Tendon injuries of the foot and ankle. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 4rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 117.

Scoliosis
1. Scoliosis Australia
is a project of the Spine Society of Australia, an Affiliate of the Australian Orthopaedic Association. The website provides extensive information about scoliosis. http://www.scoliosis-australia.org/index.html
2. Shakil, H; Iqbal, ZA; Al-Ghadir, AH (2014). "Scoliosis: review of types of curves, etiological theories and conservative treatment.". Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation. 27 (2): 111–5.
PMID 24284269.
3. Gorman, Kristen Fay; Julien, Cédric; Moreau, Alain (14 June 2012). "The genetic epidemiology of idiopathic scoliosis". European Spine Journal. 21 (10): 1905–1919. doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2389-6. PMID 22695700.
4. Negrini, S; Minozzi, S; Bettany-Saltikov, J; Chockalingam, N; Grivas, TB; Kotwicki, T; Maruyama, T; Romano, M; Zaina, F (18 June 2015). "Braces for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (6): CD006850. PMID 26086959.
5. Kalichman L, Kendelkor L, Tomer B. Bracing and excercise-based treatment for idiopathic scoliosis (2016). J of Body & Mov Therapy. 20(1):56-64. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2015.04.007
6. Ogilvie JW, Braun J, Argyle V, Nelson L, Meade M, Ward K (2006). "The search for idiopathic scoliosis genes". Spine. 31 (6): 679–681.
doi:10.1097/01.brs.0000202527.25356.90. PMID 16540873.

7. Lucio Montanaro; Patrizio Parisini; Tiziana Greggi; Mario Di Silvestre; Davide Campoccia; Simona Rizzi; Carla R. Arciola (2006). "Evidence of a linkage between matrilin-1 gene (MATN1) and idiopathic scoliosis". Scoliosis. 1: 21. doi:10.1186/1748-7161-1-21. PMC 1769398. PMID 17176459.
8. Horacek O, Mazanec R, Morris CE, Kobesova A. Spinal deformities in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy: a retrospective qualitative, quantitative, genotypical, and familial analysis of 175 patients., Spine, 2007;32(22):2502-8.
9. Downs J, Torode I, Wong K, et al (2016). The natural history of scoliosis in females with Rett Syndrome.  Spine ;41(10):856-63. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001399.
10. Weiss HR, Moramarco MM, Borysov M, Ng SY, Lee SG, Nan X, Moramarco KA.(2016). Postural Rehabilitation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis during Growth.Asian Spine J. 2016 Jun;10(3):570-81. doi: 10.4184/asj.2016.10.3.570. Epub 2016 Jun 16. Review. PMID:27340540


Back Pain in Pregnancy
1. Pennick V, Young G. 2014. Interventions for preventing and treating pelvic and back pain in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 2.
www.cochrane.org [Accessed July 2016]
2. Ternov N, Grennert L, Aberg A. 2001. Acupuncture for lower back and pelvic pain in late pregnancy: a retrospective report on 167 consecutive cases. Pain Medicine. 2(3): 204-207

3. Wedenberg K, Moen B, Norling A. 2000. A prospective randomized study comparing acupuncture with physiotherapy for low-back and pelvic pain in pregnancy. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 79 (5): 125-128
4.Ostgaard H, Andersson G, Karlsson K. 1991. Prevalence of back pain in pregnancy. Spine. 16: 549-552
5. Kluge J, Hall D, Louw Q, Theron G, Grové D. 2011. Specific exercises to treat pregnancy-related low back pain in a South African population. International Journal Of Gynaecology And Obstetrics. 113(3): 187-91


Sports Injury and Sporting Enhancement
1. Brukner P, Karim K (2012). Clinical Sports Medicine 4th Ed. McGrath-Hill Education. ISBN:9780070998131.
2. Page P, Frank C, Lardner R (2010) Assessment and treatment of Muscle Imbalance. The Janda Approach. Human Kinetics. ISBN10:0-7362-7400-7

3.Schwartzbauer J and Zang J et al, JOURNAL OF VERTEBRAL SUBLUXATION RESEARCH, VOL. 1, NO. 4, 1997 1
4. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 2010, 11, 64
5. Pellow JE and Brantingham JW , The efficacy of adjusting the ankle in the treatment of subacute and chronic grade I and grade II ankle inversion sprains.  Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics, 2001, 24(1), 17
6. http://chiropractors.asn.au/membership/clinical-interest-groups/sca 
7. Frank C, Kobesova A, Kolar P. Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization & Sports Rehabilitation, Int J Sports Phys Ther. , 2013 Feb;8(1):62-7